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Vitamin A1, also called retinol, along with retinal, retinyl palmitate and retinoic acid are members of the Vitamin A family. When absorbed by the body, they are converted into effective forms corresponding to needs. After being absorbed by the skin, retinol is converted into retinal and then into retinoic acid to be used; thus, it possesses an efficacy similar to that of retinoic acid, but is less irritating and milder than retinal and retinoic acid.

Retinoic Acid

All-trans-retinoic acid is simplified as retinoic acid. Vitamin A can be oxidized into retinal and converted into retinoic acid. Through this conversion, the body can generate tens of biological mechanisms with retinoic acid bringing all-round effects to the skin. It is the first topical drug approved by the FDA to be anti-photoaging. Yet, retinoic acid is strongly irritating to the skin, and cannot be directly applied to cosmetics. It has been listed as a prescription medicine. Long-term use of retinoic acid delivers 4 main effects including: 1. Stimulating skin renewal to increase skin thickness. It is especially suitable for the diminishing of enlarged pores caused by age-related sagging. 2. Preventing aging and reducing wrinkles. Retinoic acid firms skin and boosts elasticity whilst improving roughness and smoothing wrinkles. 3. Brightening skin tone. It inhibits melanin formation so that the skin can be illuminating. 4. Preventing breakouts and alleviating redness caused by capillary regeneration. 

Retinyl Palmitate

Retinyl palmitate, also known as retinyl ester, is the main form of fat-soluble Vitamin A saved in the human body. To be used by the skin, retinyl palmitate needs to be converted first into retinol, second into retinal, and lastly retinoic acid. Thus, while it yields slower results than retinol, retinal and retinoic acid, it possesses higher stability with the least irritation. 


Retinal, also known as retinaldehyde, is involved in the vision and important to the initiation of the visual cycle. Since it only takes one step for retinal to be converted to retinoic acid, its skincare efficacy is comparable to that of retinoic acid. It works faster than retinol, but comes with stronger side effects as a result.